ICOG s research area covers the period from Babylonian civilisation (c. 3000 BC) to the present. The following focuspoints may be distinguished: |a) Hellenistic civilisation (3rd century BC to the early-Roman imperial period) and the history of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, and of the period between the Roman Empire and the transition from Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages. |b) The Middle Ages, with the emphasis on the Late Middle Ages/Early Modern Times (1400-1650). |c) The Fin de Siècle and the Belle Époque (c. 1870-1920), and linked to this, the so-called 'Long Nineteenth Century' (1789-1920). |d) The period from the Cold War to the present, with the emphasis on the period from World War II to the present. |Research at ICOG is characterised by its interdisciplinary nature, which means that the project groups are organised in such a way as to encourage links both synchronic and diachronic between them. However, it is not necessary for all research to be set up as part of a programme.