Background: Incisional hernia repair can be a significant challenge for both surgeon and patient. Despite the growing amount of literature describing various methods of surgical techniques, little has been published regarding the natural course of incisional hernia and the opinions about indications for incisional hernia repair. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to a group of surgeons internationally renowned in incisional hernia surgery and research. Results: Pain and limitations of daily activities were considered the most important indications for repair. Cosmetic complaints were seen as least important. About 23% of patients were asymptomatic. More than 20% did not receive surgical treatment. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with incisional hernia is not operated. Despite this large group of patients, valid data describing the natural course are absent. A prospective trial monitoring incisional untreated hernias as well as comparing conservative treatment with repair should be performed.