In two studies we hypothesized that outgroup perspective-taking promotes group-based guilt among weakly identifi ed perpetrator group members, but hinders it among higher identifiers. In Study 1, native Dutch participants (N = 153) confronted their group’s past mistreatment of outgroups, while perspective-taking was manipulated. This manipulation significantly increased guilt among lower identifi ers, but decreased guilt among higher identifi ers. In addition, guilt predicted positively participants’ support for reparation. In Study 2 (N = 217), we replicated this interaction and elaborated on its underlying processes. As predicted, perspective-taking positively predicted feelings of compassion for outgroup members, as well as the perceived responsibility of the ingroup for the harm infl icted. Path analyses indicated the dual role of compassion: it predicted guilt positively among lower identifiers, but negatively among higher identifiers. The double-edged potential of perspective-taking for improving relations between groups that have a history on conflict is discussed.