Technological change still remains an important driver of the economy. This thesis studies the endogenous forces of technological change stemming from behavioural interactions within populations of many agents. Four theoretical models are proposed that describe consumers’ and suppliers’ behaviour affecting decision making about technology. The models produce a rich variety of emergent patterns of simulated technologies, markets and industry dynamics. We are able to reproduce various stylized facts of technological change, including path dependence and learning curves. In two cases a policy perspective is adopted, focusing on the role of technological innovation to deal with pressing environmental and energy challenges.