Non-timber forest product trade : a trade-off between conservation and development : assessing the outcomes of non-timber forest product trade on livelihoods and the environment, with special emphasis on the damar agroforests in Sumatra, Indonesia
This PhD dissertation examines the proposition that trade in non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, fruit and rattan would simultaneously lead to forest conservation and rural development. In doing so, it touches on a range of related topics such as tenure security, agroforestry and the non-agricultural sector. The book contains both a meta-analysis of 55 cases in Asia, Africa and Latin America and an in-depth study of the damar resin agroforests in Sumatra, Indonesia. The findings indicate that the relationship between forest conservation and rural development is characterized by trade-offs. Policymakers and practitioners working in conservation need to acknowledge that win-win approaches are often unrealistic and sometimes even naive. Supporting agroforestry is, however, a promising strategy to achieve a balanced trade-off between conservation and development.