Research within theme B is focussed on the interaction between innovation, the behaviour of actors involved in processes of competition and the development of the environment in which the competitive process takes place. Innovation includes not just technological innovation but also non-technological innovation, particularly organizational and stylistic innovation. Actors include individual innovators or enterpreneurs, firms, departments within firms, stakeholders of firms, groups of individuals or firms, nations, and all other entities which can be viewed as attempting to maintain or improve their position within a competitive environment. Competitive environments include markets, industries, networks, value systems, but also single firms (within which, for instance, specific departments or different groups of stakeholders can compete about the direction of the innovative strategy) and the international policy environment. Not only actors but also competitive environments interact with each other. The internal organization of a firm, for instance, allows specific types of competitive processes within a firm that, in turn, interact with its ability to make specific strategic choices, successfully market particular types of new products, and, directly and indirectly, change the course of the development of the market or industry, of the technology and of public policy. Highlighting not only the connections between actors but also between different environments, and paying particular attention to the dynamics of these connections, also makes it attractive, and often necessary, to integrate different theoretical approaches, frameworks and concepts: not just from strategic management theory, organization theory, marketing and industrial economics but also from, for instance, sociology. Also, the characteristics of the interrelations between processes sometimes make it useful to pursue more longitudinal or historical approaches, taking into account long-term changes in the social, cultural, technological, institutional and legal background. Examples of specific topics include: radical innovation and the evolution of networks and industries; managing bandwagoneffects in new markets; transaction costs and risk in networks of subcontractors; corporate governance of start-ups; vertical integration and the appropriability of innovations; internationalization paths of small innovating firms; the R & D/marketing interface and organizational politics; the relations between services and manufacturing industries within national systems of innovation; stylistic innovation and stylistic movements, interaction between trade policy and technology policy; competition, cooperation and standardization; new product development in the services and cultural industries; the influence of new communication technologies on organizational characteristics and on the formation of new markets.