The research program combines the knowledge bases and paradigms of educational effectiveness and constructivism. The program starts out with the strong points of each tradition such as the multi-level nature of effectiveness and its emphasis on the effects of learning and teaching and the focus on higher order learning in constructivism. In addition the program addresses the theoretical gaps as well as integrated concepts built on both traditions. Research questions will regard: -* the theoretical concepts which lie behind the research traditions and combinations of these concepts in profiles at the classroom and school levels, -* the conceptual gaps which still exist in the domain of both traditions, such as the role of the school level in constructivist teaching, the mutual influence of basic skills and higher order skills, the influence of effective classroom characteristics on higher order skills, and the effectiveness of constructivist teaching, -*the scope of both traditions, which refers to issues such as the conditions for succesful implementation of effective, constructivist and mixed approaches, differential effects of these approaches, comparability of findings across school subjects and types of education. The first phase of the research program will focus on fundamental research. Later on the fundamental studies will be joined by applied studies while foundational studies will be planned during the full research program.