Within this research group two main lines become increasingly apparent Clinical Immunology (Coordinator Dr. A. Willemse). The main focus of this research group concerns the immunological regulation of the inflammatory response with emphasis on allergy and autoimmunity. Such focus not only concerns the inflammation once disease has established but may have connections with the regulatory mechanisms associated with prevention and immune intervention in terms of the induction of tolerance. Examples of projects on the main focus are: Immunopathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis, Atopic dermatitis in dogs: regulation of the inflammatory response, Adverse food reactions in dogs: regulation of the inflammatory response in the interaction between the skin and the duodenum, The regulatory role of cytokines in feline atopic dermatitis, and The modulatory effect of heat shock proteins on inflammation in canine atopic dermatitis. Anesthesiology and neural regulation (Coordinator Prof. Dr. L.J. Hellebrekers), part of GSAH Core program D. The combined projects focus at developing neurophysiological methods for quantifying the analgesic component of general anaesthesia. Through development and refinement of methods for obtaining and analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in rats a situation will be created whereby the level of analgesic efficacy can be continuously and adequately quantified during anaesthesia. This will not only provide a means to ensure the quality of general anaesthesia but also will allow a more in-depth comparison between different anaesthetic drugs or drug combinations used in animal anaesthesia. The proposed rat studies [2003-2004] include: 1) Elucidation of the neural structures involved in the generation of the scalp-recorded SEPs, to be evaluated by a comparison between scalp- and intracerebral recorded SEPs. Histological verification of the intra-cerebral recording locations [Department of Pathology, FVM, UU]; 2) The middle-latency SEP parameters will be validated in comparison with common reflexes and fear-conditioned behaviour in collaboration with excellent tracé student and the Department of Animal and Society. In the dog, we have developed a technique to record the MLAEP while awake and established that even light sedation with acepromazine results in changes in the latency of the different components of the MLAEP waveform. In order to investigate the MLAEP effects of different test drugs it is important to obtain a pre-test tracing, our research has shown that this should be obtained in dogs while awake. The effects of sevoflurane on the MLAEP have been investigated . The present study further investigates the MLAEP effects of different drugs, in an effort to establish the use of the MLAEP as clinical monitor of quality of anaesthesia. Apart from the above mentioned research lines several scientific projects are being conducted, which objectives arise directly from important clinical problems clinicians are being confronted with in every day veterinary practice. In case these projects focus on clinical trials closely related to subject of the project groups Intercellular Communication or Clinical and Molecular Genetics a close cooperation with these project groups exists. All clinical trials are monitored by a specialized committee. A limited number of other clinically important projects are being conducted. Examples of such research projects are: The effect of certain surgical variables on celioscopic ovariectomy, Efficacy of cyclosporin in the treatment of feline atopic dermatitis: a blinded randomised prednisolone- controlled study, Study of the potential difference of anti-oxidant-status in dogs with and without cataract, and the use of carbamylated hemoglobin in differentiating acute from chronic renal failure.