This part of the research program will focus on the history of human security, searching for the traditions and processes from which current ideas and practices evolved. In order to place human security in a wider chronological framework, it is necessary to define it in a broad and timeless way. It is defined as a comprehensive (i.e., non-geopolitical) and people-centred (i.e., not state-centred) security concept, based on historical antecedents. The historical period under scrutiny is the 16th century: the time when the formation of the modern law of nations began. Both legal practice and doctrine will be analysed and, where possible, combined. Two main topics are relevant for the application of international law in pursuit of human security in the context of history: post-conflict situations and the protection of human beings through and during war. Post-conflict situations: Since time immemorial, peace agreements in whatever form have included stipulations about the restoration of the rule of law and of rights, not only of the States and bodies politic involved, but also of individuals. Research will be done into the treatment of individuals rights in peace agreements. These include both stipulations about the restoration of injured rights and measures to prevent harm in the future. Security through and in war: In the past, as in the present, the use of armed force (war, intervention) has been justified in terms of securing vital interests, values, and rights, such as human security. Justifications of wars and intervention will be analysed in order to see which non-geopolitical and people-centred values, interests, and rights the international community has thought vital enough to protect through the use of armed force from the 16th century to the present. This will show how the contents of a comprehensive and people-centred concept of human security evolved and changed over time. The study will explore historical antecedents of human security in international legal practice from the late 18th century to the present. The purpose is to unearth what human values and interests were considered vital by the international community and thus deemed worthy of protection in different periods. In order to do so, the justification of use of force by States and/or by the international community will be analyzed. The focus will be on cases where use of force was justified in terms of the protection and enforcement of human security or the seeking of retribution, compensation, and restoration of harm done to rights the aggressor claimed to enforce. These justifications will be evaluated in the light of then existing international law and reactions by third States.