In this research theme, the focus is on the public agents. The reason is that they often have a statutory responsibility for trying to steer the nature and direction of urban and regional change. For carrying out that responsibility, they have been given exclusive use of public law powers, and they often take the lead to change the form of governance, where necessary creating formal structures for that. A central research question under this theme is: how do forms of governance of urban and regional change arise and change in this multi-level and multi-agency context? What are the consequences of changes such as Europeanisation on forms of governance? How are forms of governance embedded in a wider context, and what chances does this give and what limitations does it impose? This general question is important not only for a better understanding of how governance arises, but also for translating this knowledge to actions for improving the possibilities for purposefully changing the governance. Another research question is related to this second point. To the extent that public agencies can purposefully change the powers and structures for the governance of urban and regional change, how should they accomplish that and how should they operate within those structures?