Activating prior knowledge dependent of the expertise of a student


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Title Activating prior knowledge dependent of the expertise of a student
Period 10 / 2005 - 10 / 2009
Status Completed
Research number OND1316616
Data Supplier Website ICO; Website CELSTEC


A large number of studies has shown that prior knowledge activation facilitates subsequent information processing and recall. Two prior knowledge activation strategies can be distinguished: a bottom-up strategy and a top-down strategy. * In a bottom-up strategy prior knowledge is activated through mobilization of relevant concepts or problem solutions. * In a top-down strategy prior knowledge is activated through taking a specific perspective in approaching a learning task. Research shows that a bottom-up strategy predominantly leads to an extension of (limited) knowledge while a top-down strategy predominantly leads to a refinement of existing knowledge. It is hypothesized that a bottom-up strategy could best be used for low-expertise learners because it enables them to expand their knowledge, a top-down strategy however, could best be used for high-expertise learners because it allows them to refine their existing knowledge. This hypothesis is investigated using guidelines from cognitive load theory that indicate how both strategies should be implemented in order to make optimal use of a learner's working memory capacity depending on their level of expertise.

Abstract (NL)

Een groot aantal studies heeft aangetoond dat het activeren van voorkennis de latere informatieverwerking en recall bevordert. Er kunnen twee strategieƫn met betrekking tot het activeren van voorkennis worden onderscheiden: een bottom-up en een top-down strategie. Er wordt verondersteld dat een bottom-up strategie het meest geschikt is voor studenten met weinig expertise, omdat zij hierdoor hun kennis verder kunnen uitbreiden. Studenten met veel expertise kunnen daarentegen beter gebruik maken van een top-down strategie om hun kennis verder te verfijnen.

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D52000 Educational theory

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