This research theme focuses on knowledge flows, learning, and the recombination of knowledge at the level of firms and sectors. It entails microeconomic research, or the detailed study of particular high-tech sectors such as biotechnology, information technology, and environmental technologies. The use and adoption of technologies in more traditional sectors, particularly in developing countries, is also addressed. Central issues of concern include the evolution of firm and industry structures, the possible co-existence of several technologies, the co-existence of several activities within a region, or the presence of one type of activity in several locations. The following keywords illustrate the scope of the research programme under this heading: nature of knowledge, information and learning; network analyses, technological standards and variety; sectoral studies: from agriculture to industrial and service sectors; technology fields, such as biotechnology, information and communication technologies, environmental technologies, etc. and their sectoral impact; intellectual property rights; regional development and spatial agglomeration; industrial dynamics and the impact of technology and innovation on tradable versus non-tradable sectors.