The researchline Experimental Cardiovascular Anesthesiology (ECA) focuses on cardioprotective mechanisms underlying volatile anesthetics. The researchline is divided into distinct substudies: 1. Anesthetic cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetes mellitus 2: crosstalk between cardioprotective and insulin signaling transduction pathways. 2. Effects of local anesthetics on volatile anesthetic-induced cardioprotection. 3. Volatile anesthetics and impaired adrenergic stimulation in diabetes mellitus 2. 4. Anesthetic modulation of coronary pressure-flow autoregulation.