Increasingly, international forest and biodiversity policy is viewed not only as a responsiblility of governments, but also of market and civil society actors. This development has been described as the 'shift from govenment to governance'. The project researches several aspects of this shift, buiding on the earlier work in regime and governance literature. Major themes include effectiveness of and interaction among both public and private governance mechanisms, and the opportunities, risks, and consequences of the ongoing institutionalization of private initiatives for international forest and biodiversity governance. Among others, research approaches to institutional effectiveness and interaction, as developed by regime authors, are further developed in order to study how public and private institutions influence each other. The project also aims to contribute to the further development of regime theory by discussing the current theme of interaction management. The project also includes analyses of the effectiveness of prominent types of governance mechanisms, like certification. It also aims to contribute to the theoretical debate on the meaning of contemporary forest and biodiversity governance. Empirical focus of the project is always the international debate, with a conscious awareness and research interest in the fact the international policy is in the end always implemented at the local level, and in a local context.