In the growing body of literature on exploration, exploitation and ambidexterity, research at the individual manager level of analysis is still in its infancy. This is surprising as firm and business unit level ambidexterity originate to a large extent in the ambidextrous behaviour of their managers. For research in management aiming at a dual impact on both science and practice understanding managers ambidextrous behavior provides a key challenge. To address this challenge, this project aims to deliver three contributions. First, by further developing the conceptualization and operationalization of the construct managers ambidexterity. Second, by developing a multi-level conceptual framework on personal and organizational antecedents of managers ambidexterity, and on mechanisms by which managers ambidexterity results in firm-level ambidextrous outcomes. And third, by empirically testing the model in a longitudinal research setting. By doing so, this research increases insight into how from a strategic management perspective to build ambidexterity into firms, which contributes to sustained strategic renewal of firms.